Multitenant architecture is an architectural pattern where a single instance of an application serves multiple tenants. A tenant refers to a group of users or organizations that share the same software application while maintaining separate data and configurations. The goal of a multitenant architecture is to provide a scalable and efficient solution for serving multiple customers or user groups from a single codebase and infrastructure.
In a multitenant architecture, the application is designed to isolate tenant-specific data, configurations, and user interactions. Each tenant typically has its own separate database schema or data partition, ensuring data separation and security. The application’s functionality and behavior can be customized or configured based on the specific needs of each tenant.
There are different approaches to implementing multitenancy, such as:
- Database-per-tenant: Each tenant has its own dedicated database, ensuring strong data isolation and customization options.
- Schema-per-tenant: Tenants share the same database but have separate database schemas to isolate their data.
- Shared database, shared schema: Tenants share the same database and schema, but their data is partitioned based on a tenant identifier.
Multitenant architecture offers several benefits, including:
- Cost-effectiveness: It allows for efficient resource utilization by serving multiple tenants on a shared infrastructure, reducing operational and maintenance costs.
- Scalability: The architecture can scale horizontally to accommodate a growing number of tenants without requiring major changes to the application.
- Customizability: Each tenant can have its own customizations, configurations, and user experiences, providing a personalized and tailored solution.
- Centralized management: The application can be centrally managed, allowing for easier updates, maintenance, and monitoring.
- Security and isolation: Data and configurations are isolated between tenants, ensuring privacy and security.